ES6 Features - 10 Use Cases for Proxy

Today we look into the possible use cases of Proxy, one of the features of ES6.


Source code can be found on GitHub, in the jsProxy repo.

ES6 Features

Use cases for Proxy

Table of Contents


By now, you have probably heard about, or even used ES6 Proxy. There is a lot of information around about what Proxy is, and how to use it, but I found surprisingly little on what to use it for. So I tried to find some real(ish) use cases.

Proxy is supported in all modern browsers. (Hint: Internet Explorer is not a modern browser.)

This post is pretty code heavy, so I didn't put the full sources here as usual, but you find the link for the relevant source at the beginning of every section. Also, you can open index.html to browse and try out all of them.

Some examples are throwing errors. I know that every developer says the same, but don't worry, this is intentional. You will see that the lines where I expect an error are in try-catch blocks and marked with comments too.

Before we dive in, here's a little refresher on the syntax and usage.

Basic example of using a Proxy ^

Source code: 00-basic-example.js

Proxy is a way to wrap an object to intercept its basic operations, like getting a property value. We can provide a handler object with traps for the operations we want to intercept. The operations we don't define a trap for will be forwarded to the original object.

When we asking for proxy.a in our example, our handler.get trap will be called. It can do whatever it wants before/after forwarding the call to the original object. Of course, it doesn't have to forward the call, it can do something else entirely.

Users of the Proxy don't have direct access to the original object, which makes it a good tool for encapsulation, validation, access control, and a whole bunch of other things. Keep on reading to see some interesting examples.

Let's see what we can use this for...

Default values ^

Source code: 01-prop-defaults.js

The first real example is adding default values to an object. When we ask for a missing key, we will get the corresponding value from the defaults object we provided. Note that the in operator still sees what keys are or aren't there. We could define a trap for that too, you will see that later, but in this example, this is the correct behavior because this way client code can differentiate between real and default values.

You probably noticed the Reflect.get call. We can use the Reflect module to call the original function that would have ran if we haven't proxied the object. We could use obj[prop] too, like in the previous example, but this is cleaner, and it uses the same implementation a non-proxied object would use. This maybe doesn't sound important in a simple trap like get, when we can easily replicate the original behavior, but some other traps like ownKeys would be more difficult and error prone to replicate, so it's best to get into the habit of using Reflect in my opinion.

Hiding private properties ^

Source code: 02-private-properties.js

Proxy is also good for limiting access to properties, in this case, hiding properties starting with an underscore, making them really private.

As you see there are five different traps we need to define to achieve this, but all of them follows the same logic. We ask the provided filterFunc if we should forward the call, or pretend that the property isn't there.

By the way, you can see the advantages of using Reflect better now. It would have required a lot more code to implement the proper forwarding in all these traps.

One thing to note is that if we call methods on our Proxy, this will refer to the Proxy by default, and not the original object, so the method won't be able to access the private property either. We can resolve this by binding the methods to the original object in the get trap.

A better enum ^

Source code: 03-enum-basic.js

A lot of JavaScript code is using strings, plain, or frozen objects as enums. As you probably know, these solutions have their type safety problems and are generally error-prone.

Proxy can offer a viable alternative. We take a plain key-value object and making it more robust by protecting it from (even inadvertent) modifications. Even harder than Object.freeze would. (Which disallows modification, but doesn't throw an error, which can lead to silent bugs.)

In the source, there are three sections, showing how a plain object, a frozen object, and our enum Proxy handles the same mistakes we could make in client code.

We could even take it a step further and use the Proxy to augment our enum with some "simulated" methods. (These methods aren't really there, but with the Proxy, we live-bind them.) For example, we could add a method for getting back the name of the enum from its value.

Source code: 03-enum-nameof.js

We could use plain prototype inheritance for adding methods in the usual way, but the name of the methods would appear when we get the keys of the enum with Object.keys for example. Also, I wanted to show we can do this.

OnChange event for objects and arrays ^

Source code: 04-onchange-object.js

Proxy is also good for subscribing to events happening with objects. In our example, we forward everything to the original object, but after setting or deleting a property, we also call the onChange event handler.

By the same method, we could implement other events too. For example an onValidate event for validating changes before applying them.

This pattern can be useful for arrays as well. And besides item changes, it also tracks property changes, like length.

Cache with property specific TTL ^

Source code: 05-proxy-as-handler.js

With Proxy, we can control the value that we store in our object too. This is useful if we need to store some metadata with our values. In this example, we put a TTL (time to live) beside the real value, so when we set a property cache.a = 42, instead of 42, we store {ttl: 30, value: 42}. (Of course we need to do the opposite when gettig a property.) Then we decrease the ttl every second and when it reaches zero, remove the property.

In addition, we get the TTL from a function that can return different values for different property names, so for example, we could cache config values for a minute, but ajax responses for only ten seconds.

Of course, this can also be achieved by storing the TTLs in a separate object, but I think this is a more elegant solution. And I wanted to show this "inline metadata" capability because it can come in handy in many situations. One thing coming to mind is an object that interfaces some database, using the metadata to store management data, like when was the data saved, or has it been modified since.

Using the "in" operator like "includes" ^

Source code: 06-array-in.js

We can also use Proxy to do some limited operator overloading. Limited, because we can't overload any operator, only in, of, delete, and new. We will overload new in the next example.

But in this one, we just hijack the in operator to use it like Array.includes, that is, to check if a value is in the array.

Ok, this probably isn't very useful in real projects, but I think it's kind of cool.

Singleton pattern ^

Source code: 07-singleton-pattern.js

We can implement the singleton pattern (and other creational patterns) with Proxy. In this example, we use the construct trap to modify the behavior of the new operator to return the singleton instance every time.

Using singletons in JavaScript is a controversial matter. Many developers think that it's an obsolete design pattern since we use Dependecy Injection. Regardless, it's a nice and easy pattern to show how we can trap object construction with Proxy. And you can use the same method for factories, builders, etc.

Validation and revocable access ^

Source code: 08-revocable-validated.js

We can use Proxy to validate properties and property values before adding them to the object. Let's imagine we are making a library, that wants to get some options from the client code, so we fire off an event handler and passing it the empty options object (or one pre-filled with defaults), and the client code can set the options. But we want to accept only valid options and values, otherwise, we throw an error.

We could do the validation after we got back the object, but baking the validation into the object itself has some advantages. Our library code can safely assume the object is always valid, so we don't need validation and error handling code everywhere we use it.

By using a revocable proxy, we can even revoke the client code's access, so it can't modify it after the event handler returns. In more general terms, when we pass internal objects to external code for modification, we can protect it against later tampering.

Cookie object ^

Source code: 09-cookie-object.js

In this example, we augment an object with cookie persistence. When we create the object, we load the cookies to properties, and from then on, we save every change to the cookies too.

Instead of cookies, we could use a real database too, but those usually have async APIs (as they should), and that leaves us no choice but to return promises instead of values, and that would make the client code weird. Instead of console.log(dbObject.x, dbObject.y) we would have to write Promise.all([dbObject.x, dbObject.y]).then(console.log) so our Proxy wouldn't really make it any simpler, than using the original database API. But I will definitely do some more thinking in this area. Because an API like this would be very cool.

Python-like array slicing ^

Source code: 10-python-slicing.js

Those of you familiar with Python are probably love the list slicing syntax, and like myself would love to have something similar in JavaScript.

For those of you aren't familiar, Python allows you to:

  1. Take a subset of a list (array) by using the list[start:end:step] syntax. So, for example, you can get every 3rd item from index 10 to 20 by list[10:20:3]. (Note: end is exclusive, so it's really just going through items 10-19.)
  2. You can use negative indices if you need to index from the end of the list. So -1 is the last item, -2 is the second to last, etc.

Of course, you can do the same in JavaScript, but not in this concise and elegant way. But as you probably guessed by now, we can use Proxy.

JavaScript syntax doesn't allow us to put colons in the array index, but it's perfectly fine if we use a string. So we can write the previous example like list["10:20:3"], and in the get trap, we can forward the call if the index is a number, but do the slicing and return the results if the index is a string.

There's nothing special in this example, most of the code is just the splitting logic. The Proxy handler itself is about 3 lines of code, with only a get trap.

Proxy as a proxy handler ^

Source code: 11-proxy-as-handler.js

This last one is admittedly not that useful, but it's a fun little pattern I didn't want to exclude, so I've added it as a bonus 11th example.

Here, we use a Proxy object (logProxy) to act as the handler for another Proxy (myObj), generating all the traps dynamically. So when we do myObj.a = 3, normally, the handler's set trap would fire. But since the handler (logProxy) is a Proxy itself, its handler's get trap will fire, trying to get the set trap like this: logHandler.get(logProxy, 'set'). In there, we generate and return the relevant trap, made dynamically by putting logs before and after the Reflect[trap] call. This might be confusing at first read so here is an illustration of the calls happening:

I can only think of one use for it: if you want to make a Proxy with all of the traps looking the same (ie: the same code before and after the Reflect call), so you can generate them instead of writing a bunch of boilerplate code.

As you will see, this double proxying is especially slow (which is not that surprising), so I don't recommend it in production code at all.

Performance measurements ^

Source code: performance.js

I made this little performance measurement and ran it in 3 current browsers (on a 2015 MacBook Pro).

The results:

Object / Proxy type Chrome (ms) Safari (ms) Firefox (ms)
Normal object 623 764 1510
No-op forwarding proxy 1506 1770 1950
Proxy using Reflect 3335 4531 8435
Proxy as dynamic handler 5626 6005 10947

There is a significant difference between the browsers, but in general, the more abstract proxying patterns are a lot slower. In my opinion, unreasonably slower. I could understand some performance hit for the abstraction, but 5-8x slower for a Proxy with Reflect is way too much. But this will probably improve over time, as the implementations will mature.

Interesting, that Firefox supports this feature for the longest time (since May 2015), and it was the slowest in my test.


My opinion is that Proxy is a useful tool in our arsenal. It can be used for a wide range of problems and has the potential to make code simpler and more readable. But we should keep in mind that if we change the way objects behave in such a low level, we won't just confuse other parts of the code, but probably our fellow developers too. We should document these objects (and patterns) properly, maybe separate them to their own file, or even come up with some naming convention to make it crystal clear that these objects are special.

Regarding performance, it is usable in production code, but not for objects under extreme usage. An options object (like in example 08) would receive only a couple calls at a time, in that case, the performance hit is negligible. In contrast, I wouldn't put a Proxy on an Angular $scope, a Redux Store, or similar heavily used object. At least not in production code. Might be an interesting experiment though... ;)

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Happy proxying!